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新春特辑‖关于春节前后的知识你了解多少?


腊月二十六

December 26 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Preparation of Meat and Shopping for the Spring Festival

When there was insufficient food in the past, the majority of ordinary people could enjoy a comparatively lavish feast only during the Spring Festival can be started on the day. Besides meat and fish, people also purchase cigarettes, wines, fruits, gifts and festive ornaments.

 

习俗:割年肉、置年货

在物质不丰富的年代,大多寻常人家要到年节期间才能吃得丰富一些。割年肉主要指准备春节的肉食,实际上也代表各种年货可以从这一天开始置办,除了鱼、肉,还有烟酒瓜果以及礼品、装饰等。

 

腊月二十七

December 27 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Bating and Going to the Market

According to the traditional folk customs of the Han ethnic group, people should take a bath and do their washings to get rid of bad luck from the past year and welcome the new year. Besides the purpose of purchasing goods, people also go shopping to enjoy the exciting atmosphere of the Spring Festival in advance.

 

习俗:洗浴、赶集

汉族传统民俗中,在这天要洗澡、洗衣,以除去一年的晦气,准备迎接来年的新春。赶集,除了担负置办年货的任务,也能提前感受过年的热闹气息。

 

腊月二十八

December 28 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Leaving Dough and Pasting Spring Couplets

Besides meat and side dishes, people also prepare cooked wheaten food for the Spring Festival. People in north China mainly eat noodles. They leaven dough, steam buns or cook noodles during the Spring Festival. Today, people also paste spring couplets and pictures. With concise texts and festive patterns, people show their welcome for the Spring Festival. In addition, these activities indicate that the Spring Festival begins.

 

习俗:发面、贴春联

准备了肉食配菜后,也要准备主食。北方以面为主食,发好面,可以在春节期间蒸馒头或者做面条等食物。这一天也是将春联、年画贴出来的日子。以简洁的文字和喜庆的图案迎接春节、抒发愿望,也意味着春节正式拉开帷幕。

 

腊月二十九---小除夕

December 29 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Paying Tribute to Ancestors

Preparation for the Spring Festival should be completed today, the day before New Year’s Eve. Worshipping ancestors is also a major event on this day, by which people express their gratitude and yearning for their ancestors during the important festival.

 

习俗:祭祖

过年的准备工作将在除夕前一天的今天全部完成。除此之外,祭祖也是这天的重要活动,以在春节这最重要的节日表达感恩与思念。

 

 

大年三十——除夕

December 30 of the Lunar Calendar

 

December 30 of lunar calendar, also called “Chuxi” (New Year’s Eve), is the last day of the year according to lunar calendar. It means saying goodbye to the last year and welcoming the new year. Chuxi is to Chinese people what Christmas Eve is to Westerners. And it’s also the climax of the whole Spring Festival. There are many customs in every period of time on this special day and those customs have been wellobserved for thousands of years.

 

大年三十,中国农历的最后一天,又称“除夕”---告别旧日,迎来新年。这一天对每一个中国人来说意义非凡,如同平安夜在圣诞假期中的重要地位一般,整个春节的高潮也在这一天到达顶峰。这一天中,每一个时间段都有约定俗成的讲究,几千年来,延续至今。

 

7:00-11:30

Preparing for the Reunion Dinner

团年饭准备

 

In the morning, every family begins killing chicken and fishes as well as cutting meat and vegetables to prepare for the Reunion Dinner.

清晨开始,各家各户就忙着宰鸡、剖鱼、剁肉、切菜……为团年大餐做着最后的筹备工作。

 

11:30-11:50

Praying to Ancestors

拜敬祖先

 

Although different regions have different custom, many will pray to their ancestors before the dinner on this day. All the family members hosed by their patriarch offer incense and kowtow to the memorial tablets or the pictures of their ancestors, then they burn paper money and pray one by one. They also present the main dishes of the Reunion Dinner including pork as offerings to their respect to the ancestors.

虽各地都有不同的习俗,但大多会在今日正式的宴席前拜敬祖先。全家人在家长的主持下,对祖先的牌位、人像烧香叩拜,并逐一烧纸祈福。也会提前将宴席上的主菜如猪肉等作为贡品呈放,以示对先辈的尊敬。

 

12:00-18:00

Enjoying the Reunion Dinner & Giving Lucky Money

团年饭开席、发压岁钱

 

The two wonderful meals at this day are called “Reunion Dinners”, among which the New Year’s Eve Dinner is much more important.

There are abundant dishes for the New Year’s Eve Dinner. The dishes are of a wide variety and they all imply the meaning of good luck. Fore example, “fish” shares a similar pronunciation with “Yu” which stands for “abundance”; beetroot sounds like “Cai Tou” that means one can have good luck in the new year. Besides, there are chicken, duck, fish, pork and beef in the dinner, which symbolize a rich new year. While is Sichuan, every family has home-made sausage and cured meat as well as Chinese liquor.

During dinner time, Chinese people do not just eat and drink although the food and drinks are very delicious. They also say some “best wishes” such as “I wish you good health and a long life”, “may all go well with you”, etc. to the elders, and then hope to get lucky money from those happy elders. It is said that the lucky money can drive out evil spirits because it shares the same pronunciation with “Sui” in Chinese (meaning evil spirits), thus children who get lucky money will be safe in the new year. Surely, receiving lucky money is the favorite “event” of every child during the Spring Festival.

除夕日的两顿大餐称为“团年饭”,其中尤以晚餐“年夜饭”为重头戏。

年夜饭的餐桌上总是丰盛异常,菜色虽然五花八门,但宗旨都要有开福纳吉的好寓意。如“鱼”和“余”谐音,象征“年年有余”;“菜头”与“菜头”谐音,象征来年有好彩头,鸡鸭鱼猪牛肉都备齐,则表明来年丰裕。在四川地区,还少不了自家酿制的香肠、腊肉,当然,还有白酒。

热闹的年夜饭进行到中段,酒菜正酣,可别只顾着吃喝,晚辈们此时只须给长辈献上几句如“健康长寿”、“万事如意”的吉祥话,就只等长辈乐呵呵发送压岁钱了。相传压岁钱可以压住邪祟,因为“岁”与“祟”谐音,得到压岁钱的小辈就可以平平安安度过一岁。当然,这也是小辈们无可争议最喜欢的过年“节目”。

 

20:00

Watching Spring Festival Gala

看春节联欢晚会

 

Shown during the Chinese New Year’s Eve, the Spring Festival Gala is a large variety show produced by China Central Television. Although it has been criticized for many times because of its outdated contents and forms, the Gala is still an important program for Chinese families to sit together, enjoy family love and share happiness in the Spring Festival.

春节联欢晚会,是中国中央电视台在每年除夕晚上举办的大型文艺晚会。如今虽然饱受形式内容老套的诟病,但依然是大年夜一大家子围坐在沙发上,感受亲情、分享喜乐的重要过年项目。

 

 

23:00-24:00

Offering Incense and Praying

上香祈福

 

Near the midnight, the sound of the Gala has been already covered by the thunder of fireworks outside. At the moment, all the family members go to toll New Year bells and offer incense at 24:00 in a nearby temple. Every year, large temples in different regions hold grand Spring Ritual for Blessings on New Year’s Eve. People put their palms together devoutly and pray for a wonderful new year at the crowded temple. Such activity will last to the end of the first day of the year.

临近午夜,电视机里的声音早已被窗外震耳的炮竹声盖过,人们便扶老携幼全家出动,到附近的寺庙撞新年钟、上子时(零点)香。每年除夕夜,各地大型的寺庙都将举行盛大的新春祈福法会,在人头窜动的寺庙中,人们虔诚地双手合十,祈愿来年的美好。这样的活动也将跨过零点,持续大年初一整日。

 

正月初一

January 1 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: New-Year Visits and Collecting Fortune

Visiting relatives is still considered a major event on the first day of the first Lunar month. Also, it is the birthday of “broom”, so it is taboo to use broom or take out trash, otherwise, you might sweep away good fortunes and suffer financial losses.

 

习俗:拜年聚财

延续自大年夜,拜年依然是大年初一的重要活动。另外由于这天是“扫把星”的生日,正月初一要注意不能动用扫帚,也不要丢垃圾,否则就会扫走运气、破财。

 

正月初二

January 2 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Married Daughters Return to Parents’ Home

Married daughters visit their parents with their husbands on this day, so this day is also called “welcome son-in-law day”. The couple must bring some gifts and red envelopes along with them, and give them to children from the wife’s side of the family. They have to return husband’s family before dinner.

 

习俗:回娘家

出嫁的女儿回娘家,要与丈夫同行,所以也称“迎婿日”。这一天,回娘家的女儿必须携带一些礼品和红包,分给娘家的小孩,并且在娘家吃午饭,但要在晚饭前赶回婆家。

 

正月初三

January 3 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Staying at Home

According to custom, people should not pay visits to others on the third day of the first lunar month as it is very likely to quarrel with others on this day. However, this has already become obsolete. It is a rare opportunity for people to get reunited during the Spring Festival, so less and less people follow this tradition.

 

习俗:忌出门

按照习俗,人们在初三通常不会外出拜年,传说这天容易与人发生争执。不过这个习俗早已过时,现在人们难得春节团聚,对此已经淡化许多。

 

正月初四

January 4 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Worshiping the God of Wealth

It is the day for worshipping the God of Wealth. In the past, if an employee was not invited to worship the God of Wealth with the boss, he/she had to resign according to the unwritten rule.

 

习俗:祭财神

今天是及财神的日子,过去,老板想将某人“炒鱿鱼”,这天就不请他来拜神,对方也就心知肚明,自己收拾走人。

 

正月初五

January 5 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Breaking Five

It is the day to “drive away five ghosts of poverty” (Poverty in intelligence, knowledge, literacy, fate, and friendship). People light firecrackers in the morning form inside to outside of their houses to scare away all the “ghosts”.

 

习俗:破五

俗称破五,要“赶走五穷”,包括“智穷、学穷、文穷、命穷、交穷(结交“损友”)”。旧时人们在清晨放鞭炮,边放边往门外走,传说如此便可将一切不吉利的东西都轰出门外。

 

正月初六

January 6 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Opening for Business

After lighting firecrackers, shops reopen for business on this day. It is said that boys of the age of 12 are the most welcomed as the number of “12” us double “6”, which means “everything will go well smoothly”.

 

习俗:宜开业

商户可选择在这天开张营业,而且要大放鞭炮。另外传说这一天最受欢迎的是当年满12岁的男孩,因为12是6的二倍,这叫“六六大顺”。

 

正月十五

January 15 of the Lunar Calendar

 

Custom: Dumplings and Lighting Sky Lanterns

As the first full moon night in the new year, the fifteenth day is also called Lantern Festival, named after the long-time tradition of appreciating lanterns. One should not miss Yuanxiao, glutinous rice dumplings, often stuffed with white sugar, rose petals, sesames and so on. The stuffing and round shape symbolize sweet life and reunion. Lantern Festival draws the curtain of the entire Chinese New Year celebration.

 

习俗:吃元宵、放天灯

作为新年第一个月圆之夜,正月十五又称“上元节”,因历代这一节日有观灯习俗。故又称灯节。元宵节必吃的美食即元宵——汤圆,以白糖、玫瑰、芝麻等为馅,用糯米粉包成圆形,有甜甜蜜蜜、团圆美满之意。过完元宵节,春节正式落下帷幕。

 

 

和春节相关的英语单词

 

春节 The Spring Festival

农历 lunar calendar

正月 lunar January; the first month by lunar calendar

除夕 New Year's Eve; eve of lunar New Year

初一 the beginning of New Year

元宵节 The Lantern Festival

过年 Guo-nian; have the Spring Festival

对联 poetic couplet: two successive rhyming lines in poetry

春联 Spring Festival couplets

剪纸 paper-cuts

年画 New Year paintings

买年货 special purchases for the Spring Festival ; do Spring Festival shopping

 

敬酒 propose a toast

灯笼 lantern: a portable light

烟花 fireworks

爆竹 firecrackers (People scare off evil spirits and ghosts with the loud pop.)

红包 red packets (cash wrapped up in red paper, symbolize fortune and wealth in the coming year.)

舞狮 lion dance (The lion is believed to be able to dispel evil and bring good luck.)

舞龙 dragon dance (to expect good weather and good harvests)

戏曲 traditional opera

杂耍 variety show; vaudeville

灯谜 riddles written on lanterns

灯会 exhibit of lanterns

守岁 staying-up

拜年 pay New Year's call; give New Year's greetings; New Year's visit

 

英文拜年祝福语

通用版祝福语

1. With best wishes for a happy New Year!

祝新年快乐,并致以良好的祝福。

2. I hope you have a most happy and prosperous New Year.

谨祝新年快乐幸福,大吉大利。

3. To wish you joy at this holy season. Wishing every happiness will always be with you.

恭祝新年吉祥,幸福和欢乐与你同在。

4. Season's greetings and sincere wishes for a bright and happy New Year!

献上节日的问候与祝福,愿你拥有一个充满生机和欢乐的新年。

5. Much joy to you in the up coming year. May the warmest wishes, happy thoughts and friendly greetings come at New Year and stay with you all the year through.

让温馨的祝愿、幸福的思念和友好的祝福,在新年来到你身边,伴你左右。

 

“爷爷奶奶”级的长辈的祝福语

1. May joy and health be with you always.

祝您永远健康快乐。

2. May happiness follow you wherever you go!

愿您幸福快乐,直到永远永远。

3. A special card from your grandson.

您的孙子,寄上一张特别的卡片。

4. Wishing you and yours a happy happy new year.

万事如意,合家平安。

5. A beautiful wish to you and your family --- live a happy life and everything goes well.

一个美丽的祝福送给你和你的家人——生活美满,万事如意。

 

“叔叔阿姨”级的长辈的祝福语

1. Rich blessings for health and longevity is my special wish for you in the coming year.

祝你在新的一年里身体健康,多福多寿。

2. Good luck, good health, hood cheer. I wish you a happy New Year.

祝好运、健康、佳肴伴你度过一个快乐新年。

3. With best wishes for a happy New Year!

祝新年快乐,并致以良好的祝福。

4. I hope there will be a promotion for you this year.

愿您今年步步高升。

5. Wishing you success in your career and a happy family!

祝您事业、家庭双丰收。

 

给老师的祝福语

1. Much joy to you in the upcoming year.

愿您在新的一年充满快乐。

2. Thank you for all you have done for us.

感谢您为我们所做的一切。

3. We'll be here after the New Year.

新年过后,我们会再回来。

4. We won't forget you this holiday season.

假期里,我们不会忘记您的。

5. Thank you for your hard work and patience on this holiday season.

值此佳节,谨对您的辛勤栽培表示感谢。

 

朋友同学与朋友的祝福语

1.Enjoy a year filled with joy and love.

享受一个充满快乐和爱的一年。

2. Happy new year, my best friend.

祝我的挚友新年快乐。

3. A New Year greeting to cheer you, my good friend.

希望新年祝福给你带来欢乐,我的好朋友。

4. We will be having New Year Party at Wang Pings this year. You are welcome to join us!

今年我们要在王平家开新年晚会,欢迎你也来

5. Take your passion and make it come true.

发挥你的热情,让理想变为现实。

 

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